Wed. Oct 20th, 2021

It’s very inconvenient to be in the middle of preparing dinner or baking cookies and realize you’re missing a key ingredient. Consider whether your pantry or kitchen has reasonable options, such as an ingredient substitution, before making an unnecessary trip to the grocery store.

A recipe substitution may change the flavor, color, texture, or volume of the food, but it will still produce an acceptable finished product.

Basic Ingredient Substitutions List

IngredientAmountSubstitution
Allspice1 teaspoon1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon ginger plus 1/4 teaspoon cloves
Apple pie spice1 tablespoon1/2 tsp cinnamon plus 1/4 tsp nutmeg plus 1/8 tsp cardamom.
Arrowroot starch1 teaspoon1 tablespoon flour
OR
1 teaspoon cornstarch
Baking mix1 cup1 cup pancake mix
Baking powder1 teaspoon1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar
OR
1/4 teaspoon soda plus 1/2 cup fully soured milk or buttermilk
OR
1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 tablespoon vinegar
OR
lemon juice used with milk to make 1/2 cup;
Baking soda1 teaspoon4 teaspoons baking powder
OR
1 teaspoon potassium bicarbonate and 1/3 teaspoon salt.
NOTE: If the recipe calls for an acidic liquid such as sour cream, yogurt, buttermilk, vinegar, molasses, or citrus juice, you should replace it with the same amount of whole milk
Beer1 cup1 cup nonalcoholic beer
OR 
1 cup chicken broth
Brandy1/4 cup1 teaspoon imitation brandy extract plus enough water to make 1/4 cup
Bread crumbs1 cup1 slice bread
OR
1 cup cracker crumbs
OR
1 cup matzo meal
OR
1 cup ground oats
Broth: beef or chicken1 cup1 bouillon cube plus 1 cup boiling water
OR 
1 tablespoon soy sauce plus enough water to make 1 cup 
OR 
1 cup vegetable broth
Brown sugar1 cup, packed1 cup white sugar plus 1/4 cup molasses and decrease the liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup
OR 
1 cup white sugar 
OR 
1 1/4 cups confectioners’ sugar
Butter (salted)1 cup1 cup margarine
OR
1 cup shortening plus 1/2 teaspoon salt
OR
7/8 cup vegetable oil plus 1/2 teaspoon salt
OR
7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 teaspoon salt
Butter (unsalted)1 cup1 cup shortening
OR
7/8 cup vegetable oil
OR
7/8 cup lard
Buttermilk1 cup1 cup plain yogurt
OR
1 cup milk plus 1 tablespoon vinegar. Let sit for 5 minutes.
OR
1 tablespoon lemon juice plus enough milk to make 1 cup. Let stand for 5 minutes.
Catsup1 cup1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup sugar plus 2 Tbsp vinegar (for use in cooking).
Cheddar cheese1 cup shredded1 cup shredded Colby cheddar
OR 
1 cup shredded Monterey Jack cheese
Chervil1 tablespoon chopped fresh1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley
Chicken base1 tablespoon1 cup canned or homemade chicken broth or stock. Reduce liquid in the recipe by 1 cup
Chili Sauce1 cup1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup brown sugar plus 2 Tbsp vinegar plus 1/4 tsp cinnamon plus a dash of ground cloves and allspice
Chocolate (semisweet)1 ounce1 (1-ounce) square of unsweetened chocolate plus 4 teaspoons sugar
OR 
1-ounce semisweet chocolate chips plus 1 teaspoon shortening
Chocolate (unsweetened)1 ounce3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa plus 1 tablespoon shortening or vegetable oil
Cocoa1/4 cup1 (1-ounce) square unsweetened chocolate
Condensed cream of mushroom soup1 (10.75-ounce) can1 (10.75-ounce) can condensed cream of celery plus cream of chicken or golden mushroom soup
Cornstarch (for thickening)1 tablespoon2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
OR
2 tablespoons granular tapioca
OR
1 tablespoon arrowroot
Corn syrup1 cup1 1/4 cup white sugar plus 1/3 cup water
OR 
1 cup honey 
OR 
1 cup light treacle syrup
Cottage cheese1 cup1 cup farmer’s cheese
OR 
1 cup ricotta cheese
Cracker crumbs1 cup1 cup bread crumbs 
OR 
1 cup matzo meal
OR 
1 cup ground oats
Cream (half and half)1 cup7/8 cup milk plus 1 tablespoon butter
Cream (heavy)1 cup1 cup evaporated milk
OR 
3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter
Cream (light)1 cup1 cup evaporated milk
OR
3/4 cup milk plus 3 tablespoons butter
Cream (whipped)1 cup1 cup frozen whipped topping, thawed
Cream cheese1 cup1 cup pureed cottage cheese
OR 
1 cup plain yogurt, strained overnight in a cheesecloth
Cream of tartar1 teaspoon2 teaspoons lemon juice or vinegar
Crème fraiche1 cupCombine 1 cup of heavy cream and 1 tablespoon of plain yogurt. Let stand for 6 hours at room temperature
Egg1 whole (3 tablespoons or 1.7 oz)2 1/2 tablespoons of powdered egg substitute plus 2 1/2 tablespoons water
OR 
1/4 cup liquid egg substitute 
OR 
1/4 cup silken tofu pureed
OR
3 tablespoons mayonnaise 
OR 
half a banana mashed with 1/2 teaspoon baking powder 
OR 
1 tablespoon powdered flax seed soaked in 3 tablespoons water
Evaporated milk1 cup1 cup light cream
Farmer’s cheese8 ounces8 ounces dry cottage cheese
OR 
8 ounces creamed cottage cheese, drained
Fats for baking1 cup1 cup applesauce
OR 
1 cup fruit puree
Flour: All-purpose1 cup sifted1 cup plus 2 tablespoons cake flour
OR
1 cup unsifted all-purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons
*Equivalent 1 pound = 4 cups sifted or 3 1/3 cups unsifted
Flour: Bread1 cup1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 teaspoon wheat gluten (available at health food stores & some supermarkets)
Flour: Cake1 cup1 cup all-purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons
Flour: Self-Rising1 cup7/8 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon of salt
Garlic1 clove1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
OR 
1/2 teaspoon granulated garlic 
OR 
1/2 teaspoon garlic salt–reduce salt in the recipe
Gelatin1 tablespoon, granulated2 teaspoons agar agar
Ginger–dry1 teaspoon2 teaspoons chopped fresh ginger
Ginger–fresh1 teaspoon, minced1/2 teaspoon ground dried ginger
Green onion1/2 cup , chopped1/2 cup chopped onion
OR 
1/2 cup chopped leek 
OR 
1/2 cup chopped shallots
Hazelnuts1 cup whole1 cup macadamia nuts
OR 
1 cup almonds
Herbs–fresh1 tablespoon chopped fresh1 teaspoon (chopped or whole leaf) dried herbs
Herring8 ounces8 ounces of sardines
Honey1 cup1/4 cup white sugar plus 1/3 cup water
OR 
1 cup corn syrup 
OR 
1 cup light treacle syrup
Hot pepper sauce1 teaspoon3/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper plus 1 teaspoon vinegar
Ketchup1 cup1 cup tomato sauce plus 1 teaspoon vinegar plus 1 tablespoon sugar
Lard1 cup1 cup shortening
OR 
7/8 cup vegetable oil 
OR 
1 cup butter
Lemon grass2 fresh stalks1 tablespoon lemon zest
Lemon juice1 teaspoon1/2 teaspoon vinegar
OR 
1 teaspoon white wine 
OR 
1 teaspoon lime juice
Lemon zest1 teaspoon1/2 teaspoon lemon extract
OR 
2 tablespoons lemon juice
Lime juice1 teaspoon1 teaspoon vinegar
OR 
1 teaspoon white wine 
OR 
1 teaspoon lemon juice
Lime zest1 teaspoon1 teaspoon lemon zest
Macadamia nuts1 cup1 cup almonds
OR 
1 cup hazelnuts
Mace1 teaspoon1 teaspoon nutmeg
Margarine1 cup1 cup shortening plus 1/2 teaspoon salt
OR 
1 cup butter 
OR 
7/8 cup vegetable oil plus 1/2 teaspoon salt 
OR 
7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 teaspoon salt
Mayonnaise1 cup1 cup sour cream
OR 
1 cup plain yogurt
Milk: whole1 cup1 cup soy milk
OR 
1 cup rice milk 
OR 
1 cup water or juice 
OR 
1/4 cup dry milk powder plus 1 cup water 
OR 
2/3 cup evaporated milk plus 1/3 cup water
Mint: fresh1/4 cup chopped1 tablespoon dried mint leaves
Molasses1 cupMix 3/4 cup brown sugar and 1 teaspoon cream of tartar
Mustard: prepared1 tablespoonMix together 1 tablespoon dried mustard, 1 teaspoon water, 1 teaspoon vinegar and 1 teaspoon sugar
Onion1 cup, chopped1 cup chopped green onion
OR 
1 cup chopped shallot 
OR 
1 cup chopped leek 
OR 
1/4 cup dried minced onion 
OR 
1/4 cup onion powder
Orange juice1 tablespoon1 tablespoon other citrus juice
Orange zest1 tablespoon1/2 teaspoon orange extract
OR 
1 teaspoon lemon juice
Parmesan cheese1/2 cup, grated1/2 cup grated Asiago cheese
OR 
1/2 cup grated Romano cheese
Parsley1 tablespoon chopped fresh1 tablespoon chopped fresh chervil
OR 
1 teaspoon dried parsley
Pepperoni1 ounce1-ounce salami
Raisin1 cup1 cup dried currants
OR 
1 cup dried cranberries 
OR 
1 cup chopped pitted prunes
Rice: white1 cup, cooked1 cup cooked barley
OR 
1 cup cooked bulgur 
OR 
1 cup cooked brown or wild rice
Ricotta1 cup1 cup dry cottage cheese
OR 
1 cup silken tofu
Rum1 tablespoon1/2 teaspoon rum extract, plus enough water to make 1 tablespoon
Saffron1/4 teaspoon1/4 teaspoon turmeric
Salami1 ounce1-ounce pepperoni
Semisweet chocolate chips1 cup1 cup chocolate candies
OR 
1 cup peanut butter or other flavored chips 
OR 
1 cup chopped nuts 
OR 
1 cup chopped dried fruit
Shallots, chopped1/2 cup1/2 cup chopped onion,
OR 
1/2 cup chopped leek 
OR 
1/2 cup chopped green onion
Shortening1 cup1 cup butter
OR 
1 cup margarine minus 1/2 teaspoon salt from the recipe
Sour cream1 cup1 cup plain yogurt
OR 
1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus enough cream to make 1 cup 
OR 
3/4 cup buttermilk mixed with 1/3 cup butter
Sour milk1 cup1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice mixed with enough milk to make 1 cup: Let stand 5 minutes to thicken
Soy sauce1/2 cup1/4 cup Worcestershire sauce mixed with 1 tablespoon water
Stock: beef or chicken1 cup1 cube beef or chicken bouillon dissolved in 1 cup water
Sweetened condensed milk1 (14-ounce) can3/4 cup white sugar mixed with 1/2 cup water and 1 1/8 cups dry powdered milk: Bring to a boil and cook, stirring frequently, until thickened, about 20 minutes
Vegetable oil: for baking1 cup1 cup applesauce
OR 
1 cup fruit puree
Vegetable oil: for frying1 cup1 cup lard
OR 
1 cup vegetable shortening
Vinegar1 teaspoon1 teaspoon lemon or lime juice
OR 
2 teaspoons white wine
Whipped Cream2 cups1 cup chilled evaporated milk plus 1/2 tsp lemon juice (whipped until stiff)
White sugar1 cup1 cup brown sugar
OR 
1 1/4 cups confectioners’ sugar 
OR 
3/4 cup honey 
OR 
3/4 cup corn syrup
Wine1 cup1 cup chicken or beef broth
OR 
1 cup fruit juice mixed with 2 teaspoons vinegar 
OR 
1 cup water
Yeast: active dry1 (.25-ounce) package1 cake compressed yeast
OR 
2 1/2 teaspoons active dry yeast 
OR 
2 1/2 teaspoons rapid-rise yeast
Yogurt1 cup1 cup sour cream
OR 
1 cup buttermilk 
OR 
1 cup sour milk

9 Substitute Ingredients for Baking Emergencies

Baking Essentials You Should Keep In Your Emergency Food Storage

Flour, White Enriched17 lbs
Corn Meal42 lbs
Pasta (Spaghetti/Macaroni)42 lbs
Beans (dry)25 lbs
Beans, Lima (dry)1 lb
Peas, Split (dry)1 lb
Lentils (dry)1 lb
Dry Soup Mix5 lbs
Peanut Butter4 lbs
Dry Yeast1/2 lb
Sugar, White Granulated40 lbs
Soda1 lb
Baking Powder1 lb
Vinegar1/2 gal

All dry ingredients and supplies should be kept off the floor in clean, dry, dark places away from any source of moisture. If extreme temperature changes and light exposure are avoided, foods will retain their quality for a longer period of time.

Dark hard winter or dark hard spring wheat are good choices for bulk wheat. Wheat should be of #2 grade or higher, with a protein content of 12 – 15% and a moisture content of less than 10%. If the wheat is not already in nitrogen-packed cans, it can be stored in 5-gallon food-grade plastic buckets or containers with tight-fitting lids. If the wheat has not already been treated to prevent insects from hatching, it can be treated at the time of storage by placing one-fourth pound of dry ice in the bottom of each 5-gallon container before filling with wheat. Cover the wheat loosely with the lid for five or six hours before tightening the lid to make it airtight.

Rye, rice, oats, triticale, barley, and millet are some other grains to consider storing. Pasta products satisfy the grain component of the diet as well. Milled rice keeps its quality longer in storage than brown rice. Many of the grains may need to be ground before use. Some health food stores sell hand-cranked grain mills or can direct you to one. Make certain that you purchase one that can grind corn. If you don’t have a mill, you can grind your grain by filling a large can one inch deep with whole grain, holding the can between your feet, and pounding the grain with a hard metal object like a pipe.

Dry milk should be stored in an airtight container with a tightly fitting lid. Dry milk can be kept at 70°F for 12 to 24 months. When purchased in nitrogen-packed cans, the best storage time for best quality is 24 months. Other dairy products that can be stored for an extended period of time include canned evaporated milk, pasteurised cheese spreads, and powdered cheese.

Sources

  1. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Food and Water in an Emergency. (FEMA-477). FEMA, Washington, DC. August 2004.
  2. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. 1998. Emergency Preparedness Manual.

By Beth

I'm Beth Nunes, the proprietor of preparing in the city. My family is the most important thing in the world to me. I couldn't bear the thought of my three small children going hungry, so I became obsessed with finding simple and practical ways to be prepared for the future by building food storage and gathering other emergency preparedness items.

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